NHSRC Product Update

The information below is provided by EPA’s National Homeland Security Research Center:


High Throughput Determination of Tetramine in Drinking Water by solid Phase Extraction and Isotope Dilution Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) [Report]

The Selected Analytical Methods for Environmental Remediation and Recovery (SAM ) is a compendium of sample collection and analytical methods to be used during the response to an incident involving chemical, biological, or radiological contamination. The sampling and analytical procedure (SAP) presented herein, describes a method for the high throughput determination of tetramethylene disulfotetramine in drinking water by solid phase extraction and isotope dilution gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. This method, which will be included in the SAM, is expected to provide the Water Laboratory Alliance, as part of EPA’s Environmental Response Laboratory Network, with a more reliable and faster means of analyte collection and measurement.

Planning for an Emergency Water Supply [Report]

This document reviews roles and responsibilities among various levels of government regarding emergency water supplies and seeks to encourage collaboration and partnership between said levels regarding emergency water supply planning.


Efficacy of Chlorine Dioxide as a Disinfectant for Bacillus spores in Drinking Water Biofilms [Journal Article]

In this paper, the hypothesis that chlorine dioxide disinfects Bacillus spores in the biofilm/corrosion matrix better than free chlorine was tested. Results with chlorine dioxide were compared with those presented earlier by Szabo et al. (2007). Furthermore, a micro-slicing technique was performed prior to disinfection to investigate the distribution of B. globigii spores throughout the biofilm/corrosion depth. Micro-slicing was also employed during disinfection to monitor the effect of chlorine dioxide on adhered spores with depth.

Chlorine Disinfection of Francisella Tularensis [Journal Article]

This paper provides contact time values that are useful for drinking water risk assessment and also suggests that live vaccine strain may not be a good surrogate in disinfection studies. This paper aims to determine the range of free available chlorine required for disinfection of the live vaccine strain and wild-type strains of Francisella tularensis which causes the disease tularemia.


Acute Low Dose Bacillus anthracis Ames Inhalation Exposures in the Rabbit [Report]

Credible dose-response relationships are needed to more accurately assess the risk posed by exposure to low-level Bacillus anthracis contamination during or following a release. The objective of this study was to evaluate physiological responses following an acute exposure to low doses of B. anthracis Ames spores.


 Comparative Analysis of the Traditional Plaque Assay and Real-Time QPCR- And Nanosight-Based Assays for Enumerating Bacteriophage Particles [Journal Article]

Bacteriophages are increasingly being utilized and considered for various practical applications, ranging from decontaminating foods and inanimate surfaces to human therapy; therefore, it is important to be able to determine their concentrations quickly and reliably. Traditional plaque assay (PA) is the current “gold standard” for quantitating phage titers. However, it requires at least 18 h before results are obtained, and they may be significantly influenced by various factors. Therefore, two alternative assays based on the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPC R) and NanoSight Limited (NS) technologies were recently proposed for enumerating phage particles.

Development of an aerosol surface inoculation method for bacillus spores [Journal Article]

This article describes a method that was developed to deposit Bacillus subtilis spores via aerosolization, to mimic realistic deposition conditions, onto various surface materials to support biological agent decontamination and detection studies.



 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Decontamination Research and Development Conference [Report]

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held the “2010 EPA Decontamination Research and Development Conference” to enable participants from throughout the world to discuss decontamination issues. The meeting addressed the following topic areas:

  • Cross-Cutting Recovery Activities
  • Tools and Guidance Development
  • Fate and Transport Research
  • Activities Informing Recovery
  • Activities to Support Wide-Area Biodecontamination
  • Persistence of Biological Agents and Other Bio-related Decontamination and Disposal Research
  • Radiological Recovery Research Activities
  • Operational Considerations for Decontamination
  • Chemical Warfare Agent Recovery Research

Evaluation of Nine Chemical-Based Technologies for Removal of Radiological Contamination from Concrete Surfaces [Summary]

This technical brief summarized the performances of nine chemical-based technologies for the removal of radionuclides from concrete surfaces that were evaluated by EPA’s Homeland Security Research Program.

Evaluation of Five Technologies for the Mechanical Removal of Radiological Contamination from Concrete Surfaces [Summary]

This technical brief summarized the performances of five technologies for the removal of radionuclides from concrete surfaces that were evaluated by EPA’s Homeland Security Research Program.

Decontamination of Sulfur Mustard and Thickened Sulfur Mustard Using Chlorine Dioxide Fumigation [Report]

EPA evaluated chlorine dioxide (ClO2) fumigation for the decontamination of chemical agents on indoor material coupons.  Results on the effectiveness of ClO2, both as a fumigant and as a liquid were reported for sarin (GB), thickened soman (TGD), and VX but not for sulfur mustard (HD). This investigation evaluated the efficacy of ClO2 vapor in decontaminating sulfur mustard (HD) and thickened sulfur mustard (THD) on galvanized metal coupons. The technical objective was to investigate the effects of fumigant concentration and contact time on the decontamination efficacy.

Effectiveness of Physical and Chemical Cleaning and Disinfection Methods for Removing, Reducing or Inactivating Agricultural Biological Threat Agents [Report]

This report provides information pertinent to the decontamination of contaminated animal facilities resulting from an agro-terrorism incident or foreign animal disease (FAD) event. The primary focus of this project was to evaluate and improve the effectiveness and practical application of in situ, cost-effective alternative decontamination methods to remediate and restore areas contaminated by biological threat agents. These decontamination techniques rely on equipment (garden hoses, portable chemical sprayers, power washers) and application of liquid decontaminant solutions that are cost-effective and readily available

Efficacy of Liquid Spray Decontaminants for Inactivation of Bacillus Anthracis Spores on Building and Outdoor Materials [Journal Article]

This article provides data on the efficacy of various liquid and foam decontamination technologies to inactivate Bacillus anthracis Ames and Bacillus subtilis spores on building and outdoor materials.

Evaluation of Household or Industrial Cleaning Products for Remediation of Chemical Agents [Report]

The report provides information on the efficacy of household or industrial cleaning products when applied to the cleanup of chemical agents. Bench-scale testing was utilized to evaluate the efficacy of household or industrial cleaning products on indoor surfaces contaminated with chemical agents agents (i.e., thickened sulfur mustard [THD], thickened soman [TGD], V-series nerve agent [VX], and sulfur mustard [HD]). The cleaning technologies evaluated were OxiClean® Versatile Stain Remover Powder, Zep® Cleaner and Degreaser Concentrate, K-O-K® Household Bleach (sodium hypochlorite, 5.25%), and Cascade® with Extra Bleach Action Gel dishwashing detergent.


Report on Waste Disposal Workshops for a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) Attack in an Urban Area [Symposium Paper]

EPA organized a series of workshops to specifically address waste disposal demands resulting from an RDD incident. These workshops leveraged planning efforts for EPA’s Liberty RadEx exercise held in April 2010 in Philadelphia, PA

Thermal Destruction of TETS: Experiments and Modeling [Symposium Paper]

This paper reports on a study to examine the thermal decomposition of a banned rodenticide, tetramethylene disulfotetramine (TETS) in a laboratory reactor, analysis of the results using classical reactor design theory, and subsequent scale-up of the results to a computer-simulation of a full-scale commercial hazardous waste incinerator processing ceiling tile contaminated with residual TETS.



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